case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose before, the competent authority or a person or
persons especially designated by the competent authority.
, 14
× Article 14: (1) All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any
criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be entitled to a
fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law. The press
and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or
national security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires,
or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would
prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be
made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern
matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children. (2) Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall
have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. (3) In the determination of any
criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:
(3)(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of
the charge against him; (3)(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to
communicate with counsel of his own choosing; (3)(c) To be tried without undue delay; (3)(d) To be tried in
his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be
informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in
any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him in any such case if he does
not have sufficient means to pay for it; (3)(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and
to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as
witnesses against him; (3)(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak
the language used in court; (3)(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt. (4) In
the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the
desirability of promoting their rehabilitation. (5) Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his
conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law. (6) When a person has by a
final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been
reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively
that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such
conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the
unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him. (7) No one shall be liable to be tried or punished
again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law
and penal procedure of each country.
, 17
× Article 17: (1) No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family,
home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation. (2) Everyone has the right
to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
, 19
× Article 19: (1) Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. (2) Everyone shall
have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart
information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of
art, or through any other media of his choice. (3) The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of
this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain
restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: (a) For respect of the
rights or reputations of others; (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or
of public health or morals.
, 23
× Article 23: (1) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection
by society and the State. (2) The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a
family shall be recognized. (3) No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the
intending spouses. (4) States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure
equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In
the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children.
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